Approach to a case of vertigo:1-History taking (and associated symptoms)2-General, neurological and cranial nerves examination.3-Vestibular examination: balance (Romberg test), coordination, gait and eye movement (nystagmus).Nystagmus:
Direction: Horizontal, vertical and tortional.
Types: Central or vestibular (peripheral), spontaneous or induced.
Detection of nystagmus is by: direct observation, Frenzel glasses, ENG or VNG.
2-ENG (electro-nystagmography) and VNG (video-nystagmography):
3-Rotatory chair test: