ENT Students Ear Symptoms of ear diseases
Approach to a case of vertigo:
1-History taking (and associated symptoms)
2-General, neurological and cranial nerves examination.
3-Vestibular examination: balance (Romberg test), coordination, gait and eye movement (nystagmus).

Direction: Horizontal, vertical and tortional.
Types: Central or vestibular (peripheral), spontaneous or induced.
Detection of nystagmus is by: direct observation, Frenzel glasses, ENG or VNG.


1-Caloric test:

2-ENG (electro-nystagmography) and VNG (video-nystagmography):

3-Rotatory chair test: